Upstream

 
Any E&P venture requires expertise.

Oil exploration in Angola is mainly done offshore at depths of over 1,200 meters. Thus, most operators use groundbreaking technological features when searcing for oil in our deepwaters. With prohibitive costs - each deepwater well costs between 20 million to 50 million USD - to be carried out each deepwater venture requires from the contractor group financial strength, ability to drill, careful beforehand planning and expert development work afterwards.Through cutting-edge technology and engineering innovation, exploration in Blocks 15, 17 and 18 has achieved spectacular success by any standards.

Block 15, located about 370 km northwest of Luanda, has its reservoirs 500 to 2,000 meters below the ocean floor in water depths ranging from 700 to 1,500 meters. Development areas in this block have their wells pumped to FPSOs Kizomba A and Kizomba B which have a combined production of about 500,000 bpd.

Block 17, which hosts 15 discoveries, lies 135 km off the Angolan coast in water depths ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 meters. The block comprises four major areas: Girassol (includes Rosa and Jasmim), Dalia – both in production – Pazflor and CLOV (standing for Cravo, Lirio, Orquídea and Violeta). Future production from the latter fields will come on top of the more than 500,000 bpd that will be pumped from Girassol, Rosa and Dalia.

Dalia came on stream with its own FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and offloading vessel) - one of the world's largest - in December 2006 and six month later, in June 2007 Rosa, which is tied back to FPSO Girassol followed suit. Rosa field is located 15 km from FPSO girassol and it is the first deep-water field of this size to be tied back to a remote installation in such water depths. With Rosa the production plateau of FPSO Girassol will remain at 250,000 bpd until early in the next decade.

Block 18 development - located 160 km northwest of Luanda, with surface area of 5,000 km2 and with water depths varying between 1,200 and 1,450 meters – includes fields Gálio, Crómio, Paladio, Cobalto and Plutónio. FPSO Greater Plutónio pumps oil from a development area with 43 wells – 20 producers, 20 water injection and 3 gas injectors. It’s production of 200,000 bpd is set to boost low-sulphur, medium-gravity crude towards Angola’s 2 million bpd overall production target.

Crude oil exploration field in Great Plutonium began on October 1, 2007 and consists of 43 wells - including 20 producers, 20 water injectors and 3 gas injectors. Its estimated production is 200,000 bpd of crude oil with low sulfur content and average density, an amount that puts the daily production in Angola closer to the target of 2 million barrels per day.

Linking wells and FPSOs
Connecting a well to an FPSO is an intricate project that is conducted under rigorous and complex safety procedures and which requires a lot of manpower.

Rosa was connected to FPSO Girassol by 64 km of insulated pipe-in-pipe production flowlines required some 5,600 tonnes of special modules and equipment which were transported to the site, 200 km northwest of Luanda, and installed aboard the FPSO with miniaml interruption to normal production from the already producing Girassol and Jasmin fields.

FPSO Greater Plutonio is linked to Block 18 development reservoir and wells through a large deepwater subsea system that includes a single 1,258m composite riser tower – the longest of its kind in the world.